Clippings by terrene

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RE: Miss Sherry, fess up! (Follow-Up #1)

posted by: misssherry on 07.31.2014 at 05:39 pm in Butterfly Garden Forum

Actually, I haven't raised that many different varieties of butterflies and moths, Liz, I just keep raising the same ones over and over again. But thank you anyway!

Here's the butterflies I've raised -

Pipevine Swallowtails (Jillions)
Zebra Swallowtails (Only two!)
Black Swallowtails (Many)
Giant Swallowtails (Not many lately)
Tiger Swallowtails (A few every year)
Spicebush Swallowtails (Very many, especially this year)
Palamedes Swallowtails (Many)
Cloudless Sulphurs
Sleepy Oranges
Little Yellows
Gulf Fritillaries (Many)
Variegated Fritillaries (A few most years)
Pearl Crescents (My first batch this year!)
Question Marks
American Ladies
Red Admirals
Buckeyes
Red-Spotted Purples (A lot every year)
Viceroys
Goatweed Leafwings
Monarchs
Long-tailed Skippers
Silver Spotted Skippers
Common Checkered Skippers

Moths -

Regal Moths (Hickory Horned Devils)
Io Moths
Luna Moths
Promethea Moths
Sweetbay Silk Moths
Cecropia Moths
Tobacco Hornworms/Carolina Sphinx Moth
Tersa Sphinx Moths

Sherry

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clipped on: 08.01.2014 at 12:50 pm    last updated on: 08.01.2014 at 12:51 pm

RE: Has any one used one of these chlorine filters for the hose? (Follow-Up #25)

posted by: dchall_san_antonio on 03.10.2009 at 12:30 pm in Soil Forum

Could you list what parts you used?

I was at lowes today and was looking in the pvc parts for something I could put together. A 4'' canister and caps w/ hose threads. I didn't find any thing at all like it.

Lucky (or unlucky) you! I found a picture. It looks like it was taken with an old Barbie camera, so apologies for the quality. You can barely see the gray colored thread adaptor at the right side. You can see the kitty litter I used, charcoal, and Scotch brite pad I cut down to keep the filter innerds from flowing out into the hose.

If you have trouble finding the thread adaptors to go from hose threads to the pipe thread, ask a clerk. I had to ask everywhere I went looking for them.

It looks like I did not use any PVC pipe at all but only used pipe fittings. This experiment was from June of 2003 so I've forgotten a lot since then.

If you want to get an idea of a ratio of charcoal to kitty litter (zeolite), crack open a filter from one of those water filters you put into the container in your fridge (like a Pur). I was surprised to find only a few specks of black charcoal inside. Most of it is zeolite.

Still luckier YOU! I just went out and searched the archives of my garage and found the filter. Here's a modern picture.

As you can see I did use 2-inch PVC pipe in the middle. This picture shows the threaded parts much better. It has to come apart somewhere to fill, or refill, with the filter medium. The gray nipple on the left side is straight pipe threads, not hose threads. The female hose fits on the male pipe threads okay (not great), but at the other end I wanted a better solution. It is a real pipe to hose connector.

If I had it to do over again I would use 3-inch pipe for more filter volume and less water speed through the filter medium.

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clipped on: 01.12.2014 at 11:22 am    last updated on: 01.12.2014 at 11:22 am

RE: Big, Egg-Bearing Spicebush Swallowtail (Follow-Up #9)

posted by: misssherry on 08.16.2013 at 04:10 pm in Butterfly Garden Forum

Okay, BG - here goes -

Black swallowtail are small, for a swallowtail, that is. The key to identifying them is the round red area at the base of the hindwing with a black dot inside it - it looks something like a red eye. Here's a female black swallowtail. Females have lots of blue on the lower parts of their hindwing, with almost zero yellow.

Image hosted by Photobucket.com

Males have a lot of yellow and very little blue on their hindwings -

Image hosted by Photobucket.com

Pipevine swallowtails, my favorite butterfly, have been in short supply this year. I've only seen two of them, and I've gotten no eggs. Pipevine swallowtails have an iridescent blue patch on the underside of their hindwings, with a circle of iridescent orange spots within it - males and females both have this feature. Males have iridescent blue bodies -

Image hosted by Photobucket.com

Males have a lot of iridescent blue on the top of their hindwings -

Image hosted by Photobucket.com

Female pipevine swallowtails are mostly black on their topside, with with just a little blue there. They have conspicuous white spots on the outer edge of their forewings -

Image hosted by Photobucket.com

Here's another picture of a male nectaring on a mimosa bloom -

Image hosted by Photobucket.com

It's very hard to get good pictures of spicebush swallowtails, because they constantly flutter their wings. Spicebush swallowtails are big, but not real big, like tiger, giant and palamedes swallowtails. Their most distinguishing feature is the mint green lunules on the edges of their hindwings. These lunules always remind me of a character on the old Pacman games, maybe the things Pacman ate? Their undersides look very similar to black swallowtails, but they don't have the 'bloodshot eye' feature that's visible on the underside of black swalIowtails, and they DO have a long blue area there. Here's a picture of the underside of a spicebush swallowtail -

Image hosted by Photobucket.com

Female spicebush swallowtails have what I call 'true blue' coloring on their hindwings, topside. This blue doesn't cover much area, doesn't go very high up -

Image hosted by Photobucket.com

I could do a whole thread on male spicebush swallowtails! Most are sort of an ?ice blue when they first emerge, then fade to a sort of gray green in their old age. But some are practically green from the start, some are blue green, some are blue gray, and some are gray. Their coloring covers a much larger area of their hindwings than does the coloring on the females' hindwings. Here's a picture of a male I took one sunny day, and, for whatever reason, it looked iridescent, even though they don't really look that way. I just had to post it, though -

Image hosted by Photobucket.com

Black female tiger swallowtails are HUGE - any time you see a black swallowtail that looks strikingly big, it's undoubtedly a black female tiger. They have extensive blue on their hindwings, like the yellow form. The features that positively identify them are their solid black bodies, and the tiger stripe on their underside -

Image hosted by Photobucket.com

And here's a picture showing the extensive blue, topside -

Image hosted by Photobucket.com

Sherry

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clipped on: 08.22.2013 at 11:14 pm    last updated on: 08.22.2013 at 11:14 pm

RE: How to kill harmful insects while, keeping bees (Follow-Up #12)

posted by: zeedman on 08.26.2012 at 06:31 pm in Vegetable Gardening Forum

"The plants are huge and I know I have a large population of beneficials around. So I do nothing about the spider mitd but wait to see if it gets really bad. The beneficials do their thing, only one plant ends up looking bad, they all bear lots of fruit, and even the sad plant perks up after a while."

Sunnibel touched upon one of my preferred organic approaches, which is encouraging beneficials - and giving them time to work. As has also been said, you need to know what is beneficial, what is only moderately damaging & bearable, and what needs to be dealt with swiftly.

Wasps can be one of your best allies in controlling insect pests naturally. Obviously, you would not choose that route if you were allergic to stings... but for most gardeners, I think wasps have been severely under-utilized. When I cage peppers for seed, aphid populations within the protected environment of the cage can really explode. If I open the cage, wasps will be swarming on the aphids within hours, and within a week, there will hardly be an aphid left. There are not many caterpillars in my garden either, thanks to them. I even found them eating the squash bug nymphs I had killed with soap spray... which might have trained them to go after the living ones, since I haven't seen many lately. Wow, wouldn't that be something!

In my gardens (I have three widely separated plots) I always grow plants to attract wasps. Some - such as cleome - volunteer every year, so I just allow those which are out of the way to grow. My rural garden is also surrounded by Queen Anne's Lace, and allowing it to flower feeds beneficial flies & helps to keep them in the area.

I grow cowpeas & yardlongs not only for food, but as part of my pest control strategy. Once they begin to bloom, cowpeas & yardlongs attract wasps, ants, and ladybugs... sometimes in very large numbers. Whatever the wasps feed upon, it appears to make them very docile; as long as I move slowly & watch what I grab, they don't seem to mind my presence. I have been stung only once, when I accidentally grabbed a wasp along with the yardlong bean it was sitting on.

Yardlongs seem to be especially good at attracting adult ladybugs, so there is always a resident population in my gardens once they begin blooming. One of the chief complaints with releasing ladybugs into the garden is that they tend to fly away - unless there is a food source to keep them there. So if you intend to purchase & release ladybugs, raising yardlongs can increase your chances for success.

The only downside of cowpeas & yardlongs is that they also attract ants. Unlike the wasps, these ants are very active, and will defend the plants aggressively. For the most part, this is only a minor annoyance... I just thump the stem above the pod to knock them off as I harvest. Occasionally, though, carpenter ants infest a patch. They can be destructive, and their bites are a little more than annoying. If they begin to cause damage, I wipe them out.

Which brings me to the ants... with the exception of carpenter ants & fire ants, most ants are benign, or at least harmless. The problem, though, is that some ants farm aphids. Even that is not normally an issue, since aphid predators tend to keep the population below the threshold where it begins to affect the plant. But sometimes ant-borne aphids can spread disease. Killing the aphids is only part of the solution, since the ants will just re-infest the plants. In those cases, I control the ants first (using borax baits), then use soap spray on the aphids. The liquid borax baits have been very effective at wiping out a nest, even if you don't know where the ants are coming from. I place the baits near an ant run, and cover them with old paper 12-packs turned upside down.

Soap spray is effective against most sucking insects. I have tried many variations, sometimes with the addition of cooking oil or rubbing alcohol. My favorite formula uses 1 ounce per gallon of dish soap (or one squirt into a spray bottle) and rubbing alcohol. I don't measure the alcohol, but I guess I use 2-3 ounces per quart bottle. This works especially well on squash bugs; it kills the adults in about a minute. It also works on Colorado potato bug larvae. Soap sprays need to completely cover the insect to be effective, so a light spray won't work... I like the horse sprayer bottles from my local Farm & Fleet for that purpose. To minimize leaf damage, rinse the soap spray off after it has done its work. That allows you to use stronger concentrations than might otherwise be possible, especially with additives like cooking oil.

As previously mentioned, most caterpillars do only mild damage, and do not require poisons to deal with them. I sometimes get swallowtail caterpillars in my carrots, and because the butterflies are so beautiful, I leave them alone. Cabbage loopers can be very destructive, though, on cole crops. Bt is effective for controlling them, but since egg laying is almost constant & Bt degrades quickly, you need to keep spraying. Growing cole crops under floating row cover is a good alternative strategy.

Corn earworms can also be controlled with Bt, with a strong sprayer. A couple good sprays into the end of the ear, when the silk appears, will kill most of the caterpillars as soon as they hatch & begin feeding.

Floating row covers over young squash plants will reduce or eliminate SVB infestation, and also reduce squash bugs & cucumber beetles. The cover must be removed when female flowers appear, to allow pollination. By that time, though, the egg-laying period for most squash pests will have passed.

One other pest control strategy is in planning. Treat your garden less like a small farm, and more like an ecosystem. Where possible, rotate the locations of vulnerable crops each year. While this might have only a modest impact on the insect population, it gives more vigor to the plant, making it better able to defend itself. Also, try to divide vulnerable plants into small plantings spaced throughout the garden, as opposed to large blocks. Make the bugs hunt for their supper. ;-) Incidentally, spreading vegetables out into small separate plantings is also good organic disease management.

In all pest control strategies, if at all possible, try to be proactive. It is easier to deal with problem insects early (when their numbers are small) than to wait until the infestation becomes severe. Hunting down the first adult squash bugs, and killing their eggs before they hatch, is a great example.

There are many other organic strategies for insect control, which hopefully will be added by other posters; but there are times where natural methods to control insects will prove to be insufficient. At that point, you need to evaluate whether poisons are an option for you, or whether it would be best to just not grow that crop. If a plague of locusts descended upon my garden, before I would even consider using poison, I would be out there scattering fish bait to attract sea gulls... but that's just me. Personally, if pest pressure is high for a certain crop year-after-year, and organic methods proved to be impractical, I would rather just not grow it.

Oh, and about attracting bees. To some extent, that depends upon the bees you wish to attract, and what you wish them to pollinate. Don't know your location (region, rural/urban?) but it also depends upon whether there is a population in your area for you to attract. In urban areas, or where poison use it widespread, bees could be really scarce, even if flowers are plentiful.

If your property is large enough, and you provide enough pollen & nectar sources, bees will eventually establish themselves. Those will most likely be solitary bees, such as ground dwellers... so if you see them, don't destroy their habitat. If you have the room to do so, plant pollen-rich flowers in or near your garden. Honey bees are getting scarce these days, but if they are in your area & you provide food, they will eventually find you.

Good 'bee culture' requires some planning too. Use pollen & nectar sources that bloom over long periods, which offers the bees a consistent food supply. Perennial flowers offer food early in the season; observe any dead spots between blooming periods, then drive around your neighborhood, and look for varieties that are blooming to fill in the gaps. Squash, okra, & limas are good vegetable bee plants. For annual flowers, I have had good luck with cosmos, cornflowers, a flowering mallow ("Zebrina") and sunflowers. For sunflowers, look for varieties that branch, and have plentiful pollen... some ornamental varieties are poor pollen sources. The flowering mallow is particularly impressive, it blooms constantly until frost, and I've observed 5-6 species of bees working the flowers at the same time.

Wow, this post kind of took on a life of its own once I started it. I've been meaning to collate some of these methods into one place anyway. Hope something I've mentioned here proves to be useful.

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clipped on: 08.15.2013 at 01:01 pm    last updated on: 08.15.2013 at 01:01 pm

Systemic Pesticides = death :(

posted by: bananasinohio on 04.18.2013 at 08:11 am in Butterfly Garden Forum

Hello;
Been a while since I posted. I have been busy with all kinds of things. Most recently a talk on pollinators. During my research for this talk, I came across a really scary set of research papers and I have to share their info. They described the elimination of systemic pesticides through guttation drops. I will explain, but first a little background (please excuse the lengthiness of this post. I am trying to capture it in as few words as possible but it is hard for me as you know :).)

As most of you know, systemic pesticides are chemicals you typically apply to the soil, and or seed, that are taken up into the tissues of the plant. Insects are then (theoretically) exposed when they eat the plant. The most widely used of these chemicals are the neonicotinoids, specifically imidacloprid. Imidacloprid is the largest selling pesticide in the world. Chances are, if you purchase a plant at a commercial nursery, imidacloprid has been applied in the soil. Even if a salesperson tells you that they don't apply pesticides, they mean at the sales location (like a big box store). However, a systemic probably has been applied when the plant was first grown. Sometimes before it even germinates.

These pesticides have been implicated in colony collapse disorder (bees dying off). These pesticides are found in sub-lethal levels in nectar and pollen. The argument between scientists and the chemical companies is whether pesticides are responsible for CCD. It is difficult to prove conclusively because they are at sub-lethal levels.

I have seen at least one study that indicates that imidacloprid is found in flower nectars and that butterflies do not die drinking it. There is little research on what other effects it might have, other than death, because butterflies are not a commercially important species. Certainly, when applied to host plants, the caterpillars die.

However, this is the important scary part. I have now read two studies by researchers in Italy, that document high levels of systemic pesticides (including imidacloprid) in guttation drops. Guttation drops are water droplets expelled by plants at night. Plants use transpiration (the process of water moving through the plant through evaporation) to expel excess water and waste products. However, at night, they cannot use transpiration. So many have adapted by creating specialized cells to eliminate water and other waste products. What we think of as dew, is actually this process and the drops are called guttation drops. Many insects use this water, first thing in the morning to rehydrate.

Anyhow, the Italian researchers grew corn in fields, that the seeds had been treated with systemic pesticides. Bees where then exposed to the drops of water. They drank them and died within two minutes ( here is a video link but don't watch if you don't like seeing animals die https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=e8Nsn4KvjwM ).

These pesticides are commonly applied not only to your flowers but also to our yards. Advantage is a common turf pesticide used to kill grubs. It's main ingredient is imidacloprid. I will let you draw your own conclusions. However, I cannot walk through wet morning grass without thinking about this. the argument in use of systemics was that we were not exposed to them because they were in the soils. Whoops, looks like we could be exposed to them in higher levels than before.

Oh, and by the way, they are now saying that they last in the soil up to 500 days.

Sigh,
Elisabeth

"...A Novel Way for Intoxication for Bees"
http://www.beeccdcap.uga.edu/documents/Girolami.pdf

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clipped on: 04.18.2013 at 09:25 am    last updated on: 04.18.2013 at 09:25 am

Salvia Seed Sowing here's how:

posted by: Salvia_guy on 02.24.2005 at 10:12 am in Salvia Forum

I've been noticing several questions about salvia seed sowing and germination. Here's the method I use to start my salvia seeds. I germinate hundreds of seeds of many different species.

Salvia Seed Sowing

Fill pots with moist potting mix that drains well. Sow seeds on the surface of the potting mix. Mist seeds well after sowing.

Optional Step
Place pots in a tub or sink filled with warm water. Allow the water to seep up through the mix until it breaks the mix surface. Remove the pots and allow to drain.

Place pots with sown seeds in a bright window. Cover pots with a plastic bag, for individual pots. If using a seed sowing kit place pots in tray and cover the whole tray with the plastic dome. Keep seeds moist, mist if needed.

A heat pad will help with germination.

Most salvia seeds will develop a gelatinous coating once they are moistened. Some will also develop a fuzzy mold on this coating prior to germinating. Salvia seeds start to germinate ( when the root first breaks through the seed shell) anywhere from 2 - 14 days, some may take even longer. A light misting can help stubborn seeds germinate.

Once most of the seeds have germinated and the seed leaves have emerged remove the covering from the pots. When the second set of true leaves appear pot the seedlings up into individual pots. This can be done after the first set of true leaves appear if the seedlings are getting lanky or are large.

Water seedlings from the bottom as needed.

PLEASE NOTE: Some species germinate better after the seeds have been aged (8 mths. to a year) in dry storage. I use paper coin envelopes to store my seed. I do not refrigerate them.

SG

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clipped on: 04.11.2013 at 08:23 am    last updated on: 04.11.2013 at 08:24 am

RE: Rare and Unusual (Follow-Up #7)

posted by: ncrescue on 12.29.2012 at 10:16 am in Winter Sowing Forum

Re Franklinia: If you have fresh seeds, getting them to germinate doesn't appear to be a problem. (50% germination.) However, getting the seedlings to survive when placed in the ground has been the problem here. Good drainage is a must!

I used a kitty litter container (larger than a milk jug) to grow my last batch. I chose this container because I was able to leave the seedlings in there for two seasons. They thrived all summer; great autumn color when I peeked at them in Oct. This next year we will either pot up or put outside. Survival rate after this is about 30%.

I don't check this forum often any more but give much credit to starting my old age hobby of winter sowing five years ago. What fun! And a wonderful way to get some of those rare plants, too.

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clipped on: 12.29.2012 at 03:42 pm    last updated on: 12.29.2012 at 03:42 pm

RE: Rare and Unusual (Follow-Up #6)

posted by: brandon7 on 12.27.2012 at 10:44 pm in Winter Sowing Forum

Terrene, you're right about the sparsity of information online about germinating franklinia seeds. If your seeds are fresh, planting right away is definitely preferable. However, if they are dried out, they'll need to be stratified before planting (or winter sown, which does the stratification more naturally). If you're not sure whether they are less than fresh, one method that might give you some idea is to do a float test on the seed. If they sink immediately, I'd say they are less likely to require stratification. If they don't sink within a very short time (maybe a minute), I'd guess stratification (or winter sowing) would be necessary. I see no benefit of just holding the seeds until later in the season. Even if you don't want to plant them now, they'd be better off if you'd at least put them in stratification. Of course, since this is the Winter Sowing Forum, the "elephant in the room" is that winter sowing would probably be the most reliable method.

Below, I will link an article that gives quite a bit of info about franklinia stratification and germination. Go down to page 16 (original page 535).

Here is a link that might be useful: See page 16 (535)

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clipped on: 12.29.2012 at 03:41 pm    last updated on: 12.29.2012 at 03:41 pm

RE: Franklinia alatamaha (Follow-Up #37)

posted by: Sam_MD on 04.04.2005 at 09:09 pm in Botany Forum

Haven't visited this thread since last Fall, interesting to see that it is still going. I've propagated Franklin Tree from seed for many years, I like seedlings better than cuttings because they are stockier and not topheavy. Finding good seed is the main thing, capsules take two years to ripen. Collect ripe capsules around Thanksgiving. Collect from areas where there are several trees. With a pair of shears, cut the capsule lengthwize then cut through a row of seed. Sound seed will be white inside, if hollow, the seed is no good. I sow the seed in December and protect from mice. Be sure they are watered well and they will start to pop up in April. I use only new pots and a soiless mix. Get them in the sun, let them dry somewhat between waterings.
If Bartrams could propagate them in Colonial America no reason why everyone on this forum can't do it. I think that every schoolhouse in USA should have this tree in front of it (and get rid of the pears). Pennsylvania has more Franklin Tree than any other state. Could this tree have ranged further north eons ago? All that I know is that we have a jewel in our midst and we should promote it.
Sam

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clipped on: 12.23.2012 at 08:17 pm    last updated on: 12.23.2012 at 08:17 pm

RE: Grafting Info (Follow-Up #12)

posted by: taxo-man on 11.23.2012 at 09:45 pm in Trees Forum

@Aspen - People use to paint wounds when they cut branches off trees, years ago. But that practice has somewhat changed and most people just cut the branch and leave it alone.. But on grafts they use that paint or a wax or rosin which is necessary to keep the wound dry. You don't need it on abies and hard pines though, just the grafting tape, cause they produce enough sap. I think it is similar to parafilm tape they use now a days, which is also necessary on most grafts.

@terrene - You would look for a crab apple seedling that is around a foot or two tall. It doesn't have to be anything special just the same species as the bird tree, or any apple tree of the malus species. It should also have the same trunk diameter as the scion.. You don't want a scion larger then the rootstocks trunk.. Most people use grafting tape or budding tape. Then cover that with a parafilm tape, or wax, rosin or that paint stuff..

J

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clipped on: 11.24.2012 at 01:12 pm    last updated on: 11.24.2012 at 01:12 pm

RE: How good is Meat Meal as an Organic Fertilizer? (Follow-Up #2)

posted by: gardengal48 on 10.25.2012 at 01:51 pm in Organic Gardening Forum

container blueberry, some folks on this forum have yet to grasp the concept of what an organic fertilizer is and how it can be beneficial to your specific growing operation. Take advice offered by them with a very large grain of salt!!

Meat meal is not all that different from any other protein-based animal byproduct used as an organic fertilizer - bone meal, blood meal, feather meal, fish meal, etc., etc. Typically, you will see it listed as MBM - meat and bone meal - as one is heavier on the N levels and the other on the P. Together they form a relatively balanced and fast-acting basic nutrient source.

Organic fertilizers are intended to supply specific nutrients that may be missing or deficient in existing soil. Simply adding organic matter can not always satisfy the nutrient demands of fast growing crops in a single growing season. Organic farming operations have utilized supplemental fertilization practices for decades in addition to the more typical annual cover cropping or applications of manures, composts or other OM. That is why many organic fertilizers are OMRI approved -- if they were never necessary (or somehow bad for the soil) as some posters would lead you to believe, there would not be the massive market for them there is nor any need for the organic gardening/farming approval.

Since all organic fertilizers (other than mined minerals) are derived from plant and animal byproducts, they ARE JUST AS MUCH ORGANIC MATTER as is compost or animal manures. That emphasis is intended for those who persist in thinking they are not. They require activation (mineralization/digestion) by soil organisms to release the nutrients into plant-accessible forms. In this way, they encourage all manner of soil biology and improve the soil in much the same manner as any other form of OM. Plus they offer the benefit of specific nutrient supplementation and often in a much more fast-acting form than does typical OM.

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clipped on: 11.02.2012 at 10:00 pm    last updated on: 11.02.2012 at 10:00 pm

RE: Another first! (Follow-Up #5)

posted by: bananasinohio on 09.18.2012 at 08:45 am in Butterfly Garden Forum

Ways to tell one black swallowtail from another.

First, grab a copy of a good butterfly field guide as I cannot draw pictures on this board :). The guide should have an description of the bands on the hindwing. You should be familliar with "marginal","submarginal","postmedian",and "median" (basically end, before the end, after the middle, and middle. Leave it to the scientists to complicate things. Oh wait! I is a scientist! That exlains a lot :))

Okay, here we go!

1) Look at the dorsal hindwing.
a)on the black female tiger, there is a black band that dissects the submarginal band from the post median band. The blue that extends above this tends to be faint to absent (although it can be strong through the median portion of the wing).

In black swallowtails, the blue stops above this line and is replaced with faint yellow spots on the female (I think of the males strong yellow band here).

On spicebush, this black line is faint to absent and the blue extends through to the median band. The color of blue has more green and white in it (depending on where you are).

In pipevines, this line is absent, and the blue extends through the median portion of the hindwing. The pipevine is the only butterfly where the blue is predominantly caused by irridescence only and not pigment as in the others. So, depending on which direction you look at the wing, it can look black or flash with brilliant blue.

b) the top of the thorax has faint lines on either side, and the abdomen is black to striped on the tiger.

On the black sw, the thorax has two dots on either side. The abdomen has a row of spots on either side extending down it.

The spicebush will have four small spots on the top of the thorax with stripes extending down from the bottom two spots. The pipevine has a similar pattern, though the strips might be fainter. Also, the pipevine occasionally has iridescence on the body as well.

c)the lunules in the submarginal band of the tiger and black swallowtail are similar. I think the tigers are more well developed and have more orange. The Hindwing spot of the black is more developed and has a black "bullseye" in it (the only swallowtail in the east to have this).

The lunules of the spicebush are white with a bluish (or greenish) cast to them. They are larger than those of the tiger and black. The hindwing spot looks like a pair of mad eyes (the white extends along the side unlike the tiger and black)

The lunules of the pipevine are the smallest and the blue often extends down over them and into the tails.

Phew, anyone want to add anything or correct any mistakes?

-Elisabeth

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clipped on: 09.24.2012 at 10:31 am    last updated on: 09.24.2012 at 10:31 am