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Container Soils - Water Movement & Retention X

posted by: tapla on 02.05.2010 at 02:16 pm in Container Gardening Forum

I first posted this thread back in March of 05. Nine times, it has reached the maximum number of posts GW allows to a single thread (150), which is much more attention than I ever imagined it would garner. I have reposted it, in no small part, because it has been great fun, and a wonderful catalyst in the forging of new friendships and in increasing my list of acquaintances with similar growing interests. The forum and email exchanges that stem so often from the subject are, in themselves, enough to make me hope the subject continues to pique interest and the exchanges provide helpful information. Most of the motivation for posting this thread again comes from the participants reinforcement of the idea that some of the information provided in good-spirited collective exchange will make some degree of difference in the level of satisfaction of many readers growing experience.

I'll provide links to the previous nine threads and nearly 1,500 posts at the end of what I have written - in case you have interest in reviewing them. Thank you for taking the time to look into this subject - I hope that any/all who read it take at least something interesting and helpful from it. I know it's long; my wish is that you find it worth the read.

Container Soils - Water Movement and Retention
A Discussion About Soils

As container gardeners, our first priority should be to insure the soils we use are adequately aerated for the life of the planting, or in the case of perennial material (trees, shrubs, garden perennials), from repot to repot. Soil aeration/drainage is the most important consideration in any container planting. Soils are the foundation that all container plantings are built on, and aeration is the very cornerstone of that foundation. Since aeration and drainage are inversely linked to soil particle size, it makes good sense to try to find and use soils or primary components with particles larger than peat. Durability and stability of soil components so they contribute to the retention of soil structure for extended periods is also extremely important. Pine and some other types of conifer bark fit the bill nicely, but Ill talk more about various components later.

What I will write also hits pretty hard against the futility in using a drainage layer of coarse materials as an attempt to improve drainage. It just doesn't work. All it does is reduce the total volume of soil available for root colonization. A wick can be employed to remove water from the saturated layer of soil at the container bottom, but a drainage layer is not effective. A wick can be made to work in reverse of the self-watering pots widely being discussed on this forum now.

Since there are many questions about soils appropriate for use in containers, I'll post basic mix recipes later, in case any would like to try the soil. It will follow the Water Movement information.

Consider this if you will:
Soil fills only a few needs in container culture. Among them are: Anchorage - A place for roots to extend, securing the plant and preventing it from toppling. Nutrient Retention - It must retain enough nutrients in available form to sustain plant systems. Gas Exchange - It must be sufficiently porous to allow air to move through the root system and by-product gasses to escape. Water - It must retain water enough in liquid and/or vapor form to sustain plants between waterings. Most plants can be grown without soil as long as we can provide air, nutrients, and water, (witness hydroponics). Here, I will concentrate primarily on the movement of water in soil(s).

There are two forces that cause water to move through soil - one is gravity, the other capillary action. Gravity needs little explanation, but for this writing I would like to note: Gravitational flow potential (GFP) is greater for water at the top of the container than it is for water at the bottom. I'll return to that later. Capillarity is a function of the natural forces of adhesion and cohesion. Adhesion is water's tendency to stick to solid objects like soil particles and the sides of the pot. Cohesion is the tendency for water to stick to itself. Cohesion is why we often find water in droplet form - because cohesion is at times stronger than adhesion; in other words, waters bond to itself can be stronger than the bond to the object it might be in contact with; in this condition it forms a drop. Capillary action is in evidence when we dip a paper towel in water. The water will soak into the towel and rise several inches above the surface of the water. It will not drain back into the source, and it will stop rising when the GFP equals the capillary attraction of the fibers in the paper.

There will be a naturally occurring "perched water table" (PWT) in containers when soil particulate size is under about .125 (1/8) inch.. This is water that occupies a layer of soil that is always saturated & will not drain from the portion of the pot it occupies. It can evaporate or be used by the plant, but physical forces will not allow it to drain. It is there because the capillary pull of the soil at some point will surpass the GFP; therefore, the water does not drain, it is perched. The smaller the size of the particles in a soil, the greater the height of the PWT. This water can be tightly held in heavy (comprised of small particles) soils and perch (think of a bird on a perch) just above the container bottom where it will not drain; or, it can perch in a layer of heavy soil on top of a coarse drainage layer, where it will not drain.

Imagine that we have five cylinders of varying heights, shapes, and diameters, each with drain holes, and we fill them all with the same soil mix, then saturate the soil. The PWT will be exactly the same height in each container. This saturated area of the container is where roots initially seldom penetrate & where root problems frequently begin due to a lack of aeration. Water and nutrient uptake are also compromised by lack of air in the root zone. Keeping in mind the fact that the PWT height is dependent on soil particle size and has nothing to do with height or shape of the container, we can draw the conclusion that: Tall growing containers will always have a higher percentage of unsaturated soil than squat containers when using the same soil mix. The reason: The level of the PWT will be the same in each container, with the taller container providing more usable, air holding soil above the PWT. From this, we could make a good case that taller containers are easier to grow in.

A given volume of large soil particles has less overall surface area when compared to the same volume of small particles and therefore less overall adhesive attraction to water. So, in soils with large particles, GFP more readily overcomes capillary attraction. They drain better. We all know this, but the reason, often unclear, is that the height of the PWT is lower in coarse soils than in fine soils. The key to good drainage is size and uniformity of soil particles. Mixing large particles with small is often very ineffective because the smaller particles fit between the large, increasing surface area which increases the capillary attraction and thus the water holding potential. An illustrative question: How much perlite do we need to add to pudding to make it drain well?

We have seen that adding a coarse drainage layer at the container bottom does not improve drainage. It does though, reduce the volume of soil required to fill a container, making the container lighter. When we employ a drainage layer in an attempt to improve drainage, what we are actually doing is moving the level of the PWT higher in the pot. This simply reduces the volume of soil available for roots to colonize. Containers with uniform soil particle size from top of container to bottom will yield better and more uniform drainage and have a lower PWT than containers using the same soil with drainage layers.

The coarser the drainage layer, the more detrimental to drainage it is because water is more (for lack of a better scientific word) reluctant to make the downward transition because the capillary pull of the soil above the drainage layer is stronger than the GFP. The reason for this is there is far more surface area on soil particles for water to be attracted to in the soil above the drainage layer than there is in the drainage layer, so the water perches. I know this goes against what most have thought to be true, but the principle is scientifically sound, and experiments have shown it as so. Many nurserymen employ the pot-in-pot or the pot-in-trench method of growing to capitalize on the science.

If you discover you need to increase drainage, you can simply insert an absorbent wick into a drainage hole & allow it to extend from the saturated soil in the container to a few inches below the bottom of the pot, or allow it to contact soil below the container where the earth acts as a giant wick and will absorb all or most of the perched water in the container, in most cases. Eliminating the PWT has much the same effect as providing your plants much more soil to grow in, as well as allowing more, much needed air in the root zone.

In simple terms: Plants that expire because of drainage problems either die of thirst because the roots have rotted and can no longer take up water, or they starve/"suffocate" because there is insufficient air at the root zone to insure normal water/nutrient uptake and root function.

Bark fines of fir, hemlock or pine, are excellent as the primary component of your soils. The lignin contained in bark keeps it rigid and the rigidity provides air-holding pockets in the root zone far longer than peat or compost mixes that too quickly break down to a soup-like consistency. Conifer bark also contains suberin, a lipid sometimes referred to as natures preservative. Suberin, more scarce as a presence in sapwood products and hardwood bark, dramatically slows the decomposition of conifer bark-based soils. It contains highly varied hydrocarbon chains and the microorganisms that turn peat to soup have great difficulty cleaving these chains.

To confirm the existence of the PWT and how effective a wick is at removing it, try this experiment: Fill a soft drink cup nearly full of garden soil. Add enough water to fill to the top, being sure all soil is saturated. Punch a drain hole in the bottom of the cup and allow the water to drain. When drainage has stopped, insert a wick into the drain hole . Take note of how much additional water drains. Even touching the soil with a toothpick through the drain hole will cause substantial additional water to drain. The water that drains is water that occupied the PWT. A greatly simplified explanation of what occurs is: The wick or toothpick "fools" the water into thinking the pot is deeper than it is, so water begins to move downward seeking the "new" bottom of the pot, pulling the rest of the water in the PWT along with it. If there is interest, there are other simple and interesting experiments you can perform to confirm the existence of a PWT in container soils. I can expand later in the thread.

I always remain cognizant of these physical principles whenever I build a soil. I havent used a commercially prepared soil in many years, preferring to build a soil or amend one of my 2 basic mixes to suit individual plantings. I keep many ingredients at the ready for building soils, but the basic building process usually starts with conifer bark and perlite. Sphagnum peat plays a secondary role in my container soils because it breaks down too quickly to suit me, and when it does, it impedes drainage and reduces aeration. Size matters. Partially composted conifer bark fines (pine is easiest to find and least expensive) works best in the following recipes, followed by uncomposted bark in the <3/8" range.

Note that there is no sand or compost in the soils I use. Sand, as most of you think of it, can improve drainage in some cases, but it reduces aeration by filling valuable macro-pores in soils. Unless sand particle size is fairly uniform and/or larger than about BB size I leave it out of soils. Compost is too unstable for me to consider using in soils. The small amount of micro-nutrients it supplies can easily be delivered by one or more of a number of chemical or organic sources.

My Basic Soils
5 parts pine bark fines (partially composted fines are best)
1 part sphagnum peat (not reed or sedge peat please)
1-2 parts perlite
garden lime (or gypsum in some cases)
controlled release fertilizer (if preferred)
micro-nutrient powder, other continued source of micro-nutrients, or fertilizer with all nutrients - including minors

Big batch:
2-3 cu ft pine bark fines
5 gallons peat
5 gallons perlite
2 cups dolomitic (garden) lime (or gypsum in some cases)
2 cups CRF (if preferred)
1/2 cup micro-nutrient powder (or other source of the minors - provided in some fertilizers)

Small batch:
3 gallons pine bark
1/2 gallon peat
1/2 gallon perlite
4 tbsp lime (or gypsum in some cases)
1/4 cup CRF (if preferred)
micro-nutrient powder (or other source of the minors)

I have seen advice that some highly organic (practically speaking - almost all container soils are highly organic) container soils are productive for up to 5 years or more. I disagree and will explain why if there is interest. Even if you were to substitute fir bark for pine bark in this recipe (and this recipe will long outlast any peat based soil) you should only expect a maximum of two to three years life before a repot is in order. Usually perennials, including trees (they're perennials too) should be repotted more frequently to insure vigor closer to their genetic potential. If a soil is desired that will retain structure for long periods, we need to look more to inorganic components. Some examples are crushed granite, pea stone, coarse sand (see above - usually no smaller than BB size in containers, please), Haydite, lava rock (pumice), Turface or Schultz soil conditioner, and others.

For long term (especially woody) plantings and houseplants, I use a superb soil that is extremely durable and structurally sound. The basic mix is equal parts of pine bark, Turface, and crushed granite.

1 part uncomposted screened pine or fir bark (1/8-1/4")
1 part screened Turface
1 part crushed Gran-I-Grit (grower size) or #2 cherrystone
1 Tbsp gypsum per gallon of soil
CRF (if desired)
Source of micro-nutrients or use a fertilizer that contains all essentials

I use 1/8 -1/4 tsp Epsom salts per gallon of fertilizer solution when I fertilize (check your fertilizer - if it is soluble, it is probable it does not contain Ca or Mg.

Thank you for your interest.

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Posting I

If you were benefited by having read this offering, you might also find this thread about Fertilizing Containerized Plants helpful, as well.



More about container mixes from Tapula
clipped on: 03.21.2010 at 05:52 pm    last updated on: 03.21.2010 at 05:53 pm

RECIPE: I love soup......what are some of your favorites?

posted by: linda_intennessee on 01.22.2007 at 06:26 pm in Recipe Exchange Forum

Crab and Mushroom Bisque

1 medium onion, diced
4 tablespoons butter
1 pound mushrooms, diced
4 tablespoons flour
3 cups chicken broth
1 cup milk
1 cup whipping cream
Salt, to taste
Cayenne pepper, to taste
Black pepper, to taste
1/4 tablespoon parsley
Onion tops for garnish
1 pound crabmeat
Crab fingers
Mix onion and butter and heat until wilted. Add mushrooms. Cook another 10 minutes. Add all other Ingredients, except onion tops. Cook on low heat for 30 minutes. Do not boil. Garnish with onion tops.


clipped on: 01.12.2008 at 06:15 pm    last updated on: 01.12.2008 at 06:16 pm

RE: LOOKING for: Roast Beef for Christmas dinner (Follow-Up #2)

posted by: carmie2 on 12.08.2007 at 10:04 pm in Recipe Exchange Forum

I use this one and comes out great..

Printed from COOKS.COM

Allow roast to come to room temperature. Rub outside with garlic clove and salt and pepper to taste. Place roast (uncovered) in cold oven. Set oven at 325 degrees for 1 hour and 15 minutes and turn oven off leaving meat inside. Do not open oven door during or after roasting. As serving time approaches, set oven at 375 degrees for 30 minutes. Carve and serve. The meat will be brown outside and pink inside.

For a small roast (3 people or less) heating temperatures are 300 degrees and 350 degrees.


clipped on: 12.10.2007 at 04:55 pm    last updated on: 12.10.2007 at 04:55 pm

RE: LOOKING for: Roast Beef for Christmas dinner (Follow-Up #5)

posted by: sharon_fl on 12.10.2007 at 01:31 pm in Recipe Exchange Forum

Buy your standing rib roast-it's a little more $$ to get it on the bone BUt-so much more flavor! I preheat my oven to 400. I season the roast with alot of salt & pepper plus 1 packet of Lipton Onion soup mix. Rub it into the meat well.
In a frying pan..I add some oil and sear all sides on a high more than a total of 2-3 min. This will keep the juices sealed inside the roast. Remove roast & place in your roasting pan. (I usually peel 4-5 whole carrots & set the roast on them in the pan).
Roast for 45 min at 400 degrees, then I add about an inch of water and drop the temp to 335 and continue to roast until it reaches medium rare. You really need to use a dependable meat thermometer! Remove from oven-place roast on a cookie sheet & cover w/foil. Let rest for 20-30 min.

Meanwhile..add water or beef stock to your pan drippings & scrape the pan of all of the stuck on goodies. The onion mix flavors the au jus and makes it a nice rich brown color. Allow about 4-5 oz of au jus per serving...(2 cups water =4 servings in a dipping cup.) If you do get the meat w/the bones? Simply run your knife along the bottom to seperate them from the meat. Slice your meat in 1" slices or so, place on serving platter & drizzle au jus over the top.

I also whip sour cream & 2 oz of cream cheese together & add 2 big TBS of zippy horseradish for a side condiment..sooo good!


clipped on: 12.10.2007 at 04:52 pm    last updated on: 12.10.2007 at 04:53 pm

RECIPE: maria's stuffin muffins from abc/gma

posted by: lizzynola on 11.14.2007 at 11:37 pm in Recipe Exchange Forum


I got this recipe from Good Morning America where they are having a contest for the best stuffing/dressing, and made this for a luncheon. Crusty on the outside and moist on the inside!

It was sooooooooooo good, and everyone wanted the recipe!

1 bag Pepperidge Farm cornbread cubes
1 pound bulk pork sausage
1 stick of butter
2 chopped onions
2 cups chopped celery
2 Granny Smith apples, peeled and chopped
1 bag of Craisins
1 cup chopped pecans or walnuts
2-3 cups low sodium chicken stock
2 eggs
2 tsp. baking powder
Salt & pepper to taste

Place cornbread cubes in a large mixing bowl
Saute sausage and onions in a skillet until brown, breaking sausage into small pieces. Drain in a colander and transfer to a bowl.
Melt the butter is the same skillet and saute celery until tender. Add to the bowl.
Add apple and remaining ingredients, except the broth.
Mix all together and then add the broth until thoroughly moistened but not really wet.
Add the eggs and the baking powder and mix well.
Place stuffing mixture in a large, greased glass casserole or in 12 greased muffin tins.
Bake, covered for about 25 minutes, 10 minutes uncovered for casserole and 25 minutes for muffins.
Serve warm.

I tell you these were really good. Maybe Maria will win the contest!


You can make your own cornbread or use the mix
clipped on: 11.21.2007 at 10:32 am    last updated on: 11.21.2007 at 10:33 am

RE: RECIPE: cassaroles (Follow-Up #6)

posted by: ruthanna on 04.17.2007 at 06:55 pm in Recipe Exchange Forum

2 Tbs. butter or margarine
1/ 2 cup chopped onion
1 clove garlic, minced
1 box frozen chopped spinach, defrosted and squeezed dry *
3 cups cooked rice (1 cup uncooked)
1/ 2 cup grated Parmesan cheese
1 (6 oz.) can tuna, drained and flaked
4 eggs, slightly beaten
1/ 2 cup milk
1 tsp. salt
1/ 4 tsp. pepper
1 cup shredded Mozzarella cheese

Melt butter in large saucepan. Add onion and garlic and saute over medium heat until soft but not browned. Remove pan from heat and add spinach, rice and Parmesan cheese and mix well. ##At this point, mixture can be refrigerated for a day or two and finished up on another day.

Mix tuna into rice mixture. Mix together eggs, milk, salt and pepper. Pour over rice mixture and gently stir to blend. Turn into a greased 9 inch square or shallow 2 quart baking dish. Top with Mozzarella cheese. Bake in 350 degree oven for 30 minutes. Let cool for 5 minutes and then slice into squares or wedges to serve.

* Note: 1 lb. fresh spinach, cooked, chopped and well-drained (about 1 1/ 2 cups) can be substituted for the frozen spinach.


clipped on: 04.18.2007 at 07:59 pm    last updated on: 04.18.2007 at 08:05 pm

RECIPE: Honey Rolls

posted by: solsthumper on 10.25.2006 at 12:50 pm in Recipe Exchange Forum

Just posting my recipe here for Lisa in Germany and for posterity.

Honey Rolls

1 cup milk
cup honey
cup (4 ounces) butter
2 teaspoons salt
2 tablespoons sugar
2 pkgs. dry yeast
cup warm water, 110F -115F
2 eggs, lightly beaten
6 - 6 cups flour

In a 2-cup measure, melt the butter, add milk, honey and salt. In a large mixing bowl, combine the water, yeast and sugar, if using the latter. Allow yeast to dissolve 7-8 minutes. Add milk mixture to yeast mixture, stir. Add 4 cups flour, beat well. Add enough of the remaining flour to make a soft, but not sticky dough.

Place dough in large, greased bowl, turning to coat both sides. Cover and allow to rise about 1 hour.
Punch down. Let it rise again. Knead briefly and shape into rolls*
Allow to rise 1 hour more, or until doubled in size. Preheat oven to 375F. Bake rolls 25 minutes or until golden. For softer rolls, I always butter the tops, as soon as they come out of the oven. Makes 27-30 rolls.

*When I'm ready to roll them out, I scoop the dough out with a medium ice cream scoop (#24 makes a standard size roll), to keep them uniform in size.



clipped on: 11.19.2006 at 05:54 pm    last updated on: 11.19.2006 at 05:56 pm

RE: LOOKING for: Asian Salad From Queer Eye For the Straight Guy (Follow-Up #6)

posted by: BeverlyAL on 10.04.2005 at 07:39 pm in Recipe Exchange Forum

Suzie, I think this may be what you are looking for. It's one of my favorites. Do NOT make this salad ahead of time. It does't do well at all. You can make everything ahead and not put the dressing on until the last minute if you want to.

Nappa Cabbage Salad

1 Head Nappa Cabbage (remove stems or substitute 1 package of shredded cabbage.)
2 packages Ramen noodles (toss flavor package and break noodles into small pieces)
1 small chopped red onion
1 shaved carrot
cup slivered almonds
cup sunflower seeds or cup sesame seeds
1 package snow peas (frozen)
stick butter

Saute almonds, sunflower seeds and noodles in butter until golden brown. Cool and shred cabbage. Mix all ingredients and refrigerate while preparing dressing.

cup vegetable oil
1 cup sugar
cup white vinegar
2 teasp soy sauce

Mix together in saucepan. Cook until sugar dissolves. Cool. Add to salad mix just before serving.


clipped on: 11.11.2006 at 06:44 pm    last updated on: 11.11.2006 at 06:47 pm